Design Guide

Material Properties

Typical MIM Properties

Tensile properties of MIM products are well documented. Typical room temperature tensile properties for the common compositions are compiled below and a second table shows the typical strength of some ceramic products. Ductile alloys are characterized by yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, fracture elongation, and hardness (given as Vickers hardness number VHN, Rockwell B or C HRB or HRC). Generally the densities are close to those reported in standard handbooks. Heat treatments (HT) provide a means to adjust the properties and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is occasionally used to reach full density. Considerable variation is possible in these cycles, so only one example is listed, typically the cycle giving the highest hardness. Not all suppliers support all of these materials but the array of MIM materials and properties are quite broad.

Tensile Properties of MIM Alloys

(HT = heat treated, HIP = hot isostatically pressed)

Material (Designation) Density % Yield Strength MPa Tensile Strength MPa Fracture Elongation % Hardness
Cobalt-Chromium F75 99 550 880 4 25 HRC
Cobalt-Chromium F75 (HIP) 100 560 1010 30 25 HRC
Copper 93 30 145 23 43 VHN
Hastelloy X (HT) 98 303 675 74 30 HRC
Inconel 718 (HIP, HT) 100 1055 1380 29 42 HRC
Invar Fe-36Ni 98 240 425 40 65 HRB
Iron 96 100 230 40 65 VHN
Iron-Molybdenum Fe-5Mo 98 210 410 34 66 HRB
Iron-Nickel Fe-2Ni 96 190 345 30 55 HRB
Iron-Nickel Fe-8Ni 95 310 430 21 80 HRB
Iron-Nickel Fe-42Ni 99 250 490 43 59 HRB
Kovar (F15) 98 300 460 25 65 HRB
Stainless 17-4 PH 96 750 900 10 25 HRC
Stainless 17-4 PH (HT) 96 1090 1185 6 35 HRC
Stainless 17-4 PH (HIP) 100 1103 1137 13 38 HRC
Stainless 304L 97 240 480 35 85 HRB
Stainless 316L 96 175 520 50 67 HRB
Stainless 318 97 230 590 29 89 HRB
Stainless 410 (HT) 95 1240 1520 5 40 HRC
Stainless 440C 96 410 620 2 43 HRC
Stainless 440C (HT) 98 1560 1600 <1 58 HRC
Stainless PANACEA 99 670 960 35 25 HRC
Steel 1020 96 185 380 23 67 HRB
Steel 1060 97 260 580 25 80 HRB
Steel 2200 96 125 290 40 45 HRB
Steel 2700 95 225 415 26 69 HRB
Steel 4140 97 390 580 15 18 HRC
Steel 4140 (HT) 93 1240 1650 2 46 HRC
Steel 4340 96 480 620 6 20 HRC
Steel 4340 (HT) 96 1400 1600 2 48 HRC
Steel 4605 (HT) 96 1480 1655 2 48 HRC
Steel 4640 (HT) 97 1400 2000 3 30 HRC
Titanium 98 500 620 22 95 HRB
Titanium (HIP) 100 700 800 25 195 VHN
Titanium -6-4 98 800 900 17 35 HRC
Tool Steel M2 (HT) 99 1000 1100 1 62 HRC
Tungsten-Copper W-10Cu 98 530 540 1 280 VHN
Tungsten Alloy W-5Ni-2Cu 98 900 1050 10 35 HRC

Rupture Strength of Injection Molded Ceramics

(Compositions in wt. %)

Material Density % Strength MPa Weibull Modulus Hardness VHN
99% Alumina (Al2O3) 98 300 - 450 9 1200 - 2000
Alumina-Zirconia (Al2O3-20ZrO2) 97 400 - 600 --- 1800
Cemented Carbide (WC-10Co) 100 1500 - 2600 12 1300 - 1700
Cemented Carbide (WC-7Co-1TaC) 100 2100 - 2200 --- 1700
Silicon Nitride (Si3N4-8Y2O3) 98 350 - 800 15 - 35 1600
Zirconia (ZrO2 -3Y2O3) 95 200 - 800 12 1200

For MIM systems the strength measured over repeat samples typically has a standard deviation of less than ±20 MPa (±3 ksi) and the elongation has a standard deviation of approximately ±%. When different operations are compared, most properties are similar, but a few, such as impact toughness, vary considerably.